Like all plants, trees can suffer if they go too long without water. It may take a while to notice but eventually leaves will start to die off and drop and trees go into an early winter lockdown. They try to protect themselves by shutting down systems and limiting growth, but given a prolonged drought some trees may die completely.
If you have small or immature trees, it may be possible to water them to keep them going during dry spells, but mature trees like a massive oak drink enormous amounts of water so it simply wouldn't be practical to water them. Unfortunately roots search for moisture and can thereby undermine building foundations as they suck the ground dry in an attempt to survive or seek out drains as they sense dampness. This is one reason why trees should be sited well away from buildings whenever possible.